PHY691 spring 2023
Class meet time and dates  Instructors 



Contents
High Tech Tools
 Accelerators produced the first manmade high energy particle beams a century ago. Over that century, they have been at the forefront of hightech, subject to frantic development. Accelerators today are the inescapable tools of research, medicine, industry, under a variety of forms, from small things to gigantic machines and installations, including
 cyclotrons, synchrotrons for the production of cancer tumor therapy beams,
 electron storage rings for the production of UV and Xray beams,
 linear accelerators for the production of laser Xrays,
 colliders for nuclear and particle physics research: the largest tools ever built !
 microtrons, betatrons and other wham bam slamatrons for industrial applications.
 Two examples of challenging R&D areas, these days:
 The Electron Ion Collider at BNL, a worldwide collaboration for a facility based on tens of accelerators of different types: highenergy synchrotrons, Linacs, polarized particle sources, beam lines of all sorts,
 FLASH radiotherapy, an emerging cancer tumor treatment technique which holds the promise of affordable access to ionbeam cancertumor therapy for anyone in need, and requires an as yet never reached radiation dose of 100s of Gy in a fraction of a second flash.
Course Overview
 This course is An Introduction to Particle Accelerators, Hands On, based on beam optics and beam dynamics computer simulations.
 During this course we will manipulate/guide/accelerate to the speed of light charged particles and particle beams, using computer models of various accelerators: cyclotron, synchrotron, FFAGs, linac etc. Our objective: learn about these various acceleration methods, how they work, beam optics, design and engineering aspects, understand their applications. We will do this in a virtual world of accelerator and beam simulations on computer, just like accelerator physicists and designers do in laboratories.
 This will allow discovering the basic theoretical and practical aspects of their main technological components: magnets and radiofrequency cavities. Learning the principles of beam dynamics via numerical simulations will involve a couple of dedicated, popular accelerator simulation codes. With these we will, as time allows, manipulate beams in cyclotrons, produce synchrotron radiation, accelerate polarized ion beams, watch the dance of particle spins, etc.
 In confronting basic accelerator theory with numerical simulation outcomes, the course introduces to a wide variety of applied mathematics and numerical methods, from ODE solving to Fourier analysis to interpolation techniques. Popular software tools will be used such as gnuplot (plotting), latex (writing your reports, your slide presentations), ...
 This course fosters programming, computing and system software skills, knowledge of computer languages. In a general manner, it will require the students to carry out some programming, program debugging sometimes, and other computer science tasks, as part of the game.
 So... Yes! You'll be using your laptop, it will be your main tool. Preferred systems: linux. MAC is ok. Otherwise, a linux emulator or equivalent capabilities. A Fortran compiler is needed, gfortran for instance. Have gnuplot operational on your system. The use of such tools as python for interfacing and/or data post processing is welcome.
Course Content
 During the course we will navigate through the following list of topics, as time allows, and not necessarily in this order :
 early 1900s electrostatic components, the AGS "electric analog", today's storage rings
 early 1930s cyclotron, isochronous cyclotron, CW acceleration, 1960s spin dynamics
 1940's betatron, betatron motion, induction acceleration
 1944's microtron, racetrack microtron, more spin dynamics
 1945's synchrocyclotron, longitudinal stability, synchronous acceleration
 1945's weak focusing pulsed synchrotron
 1950s and XXIst century strong focusing synchrotron, storage rings, depolarizing resonances
 1955s FFAG accelerators
 XXIst century mass separators, mass spectrometers, beam lines
 Numerical experiments will include a variety of beam optics and beam dynamics topics drawn from such themes as
 focusing, periodic stability, acceleration,
 phase space motion,
 nonlinear dynamics, resonances, defects and tolerances
 production of synchrotron radiation, Poynting vector, spectral brightness,
 polarization and Siberian snakes,
 radiobiological/medical beam manipulations,
 inflight particle decay of shortlived particles,
 beam purification, mass separators.
Learning Goals
 The course will prepare graduate students with no prior experience for the understanding of the dynamics of charged particle beams, and of the design of particle accelerators. Running computer programs has a variety of goals : applying numerical methods to solve problems for which analytical methods have limitations; producing, collecting, analyzing and understanding numerical simulation data; presenting and reporting results using appropriate media. This course will allow students to reach an appropriate level of knowledge to thrive in the field of particle accelerator R&D, if so desired.
 Following completion of this study/computer lab period, students will have learned/increased their knowledge, in various domains, including
 The history of particle accelerators
 Beam optics
 Physics and dynamics of charge particle beams, their manipulation
 Application of accelerators: medical, Xray source, the quest for fundamental particles
 Synchrotron radiation, spin dynamics and other Siberian snakes
 Programing, debugging, using big computer codes
 Many other aspects of particle accelerator science and technology
 And reporting: via realworld style of scientific written reports, and via slide presentations.
Textbook and suggested materials
 Recommended readings in preparation for the course:
 In "CAS  CERN Accelerator School : 5th General Accelerator Physics Course", YellowReport CERN9401, (http://cds.cern.ch/record/261062/files/p1.pdf):
A brief history and review of accelerators, P.J. Bryant, (pp.114),
 In CASE PHY554 (http://case.physics.stonybrook.edu/index.php/PHY554_fall_2016#Lecture_Notes):
Lectures 47 and 1314, by Profs. V.N. Litvinenko, Y. Jing, Yue Hao.
 Documents taken from the "Course Schedule" below, as needed, will complete these readings.
Grading
 Students, rather than the instructor! will be active most of the time during the course: constructing accelerators, manipulating and accelerating particle beams, discussing their progress, programming/debugging. Home work will be largely based on pursuing or "finishing" the studies undertaken during the course. A preferred way of returning the "home work" will be under the form of short written scientificstyle reports, or slide presentations to the class, or both, by individuals or 2~3 student teams.
Participation during the class  40% of the grade Completion of homework assignments  40% of the grade Homework return reports and/or slides: document and presentation quality  40% of the grade (The total is 120%, yes)
Course Schedule
 The course schedule will follow the "Course Content" above, yet not necessarily in that order, as time allows, and with much flexibility as to the topics and the time spent on each topic, depending on the difficulty, students' interest, etc.
 Beam Optics
Particle Accelerators: An Introduction
Tooling and Methods for Particle Trajectory Simulations
Lorentz Force Solver Engine: Getting Started
 Electrostatic Systems
Electrostatic Systems  Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
[[media: Computer Lab work  Solutions]]
 Cyclotron, Classical
Classical Cyclotron  Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
Computer Lab work  Solutions of exercises 3.1 to 3.3
 Cyclotron, Relativistic
Relativistic Cyclotron  Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
[[media: Computer Lab work  Solutions]]
 Betatron; Microtron; Synchrocyclotron
Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
 Weak Focusing Synchrotron; Synchrotron Radiation Light
Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
Computer Lab work  Exercises
[[media:Computer Lab work  Solutions]]
 Synchrotron, Strong Focusing
Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
 Scaling FFAG
Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
[[media:Computer Lab work  Solutions]]
 Linear FFAG
Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
 Beam Line; Spectrometer; Mass Separator
Theory Reminder / Computer Lab work
 Documentation